Contributions to research

Mr Lee’s research interests are rooted in the following areas:

  • Minimally invasive techniques
  • Computer-navigated spinal surgery
  • Adult deformity surgery
  • Sacroiliac joint fusions


Consultant Mr Robert Lee Consultant Mr Robert Lee

Mr Lee has published extensively and is regularly invited to speak at international and national conferences. 

Adsul N, Hamim I, Banglore M, Lee R. Reactivation of herpes simplex labialis following adult spine deformity correction surgery. Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Nov 16;12:562. doi: 10.25259/SNI_1042_2021. PMID: 34877048; PMCID: PMC8645498.
Horga LM, Henckel J, Fotiadou A, Di Laura A, Hirschmann AC, Lee R, Hart AJ. What happens to the lower lumbar spine after marathon running: a 3.0 T MRI study of 21 first-time marathoners. Skeletal Radiol. 2021 Sep 20. doi: 10.1007/s00256-021-03906-5. PMID: 34541607.
Sardi JP, Ames CP, Coffey S, Good C, Dahl B, Kraemer P, Gum J, Devito D, Brayda-Bruno M, Lee R, Bell CP, Bess S, Smith JS. Accuracy of Rod Contouring to Desired Angles With and Without a Template: Implications for Achieving Desired Spinal Alignment and Outcomes. Global Spine J. 2021 Feb 25:2192568221998371. doi: 10.1177/2192568221998371. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33631976. 
Lee YC, Lee R. Image-guided pedicle screws using intraoperative cone-beam CT and navigation. A cost-effectiveness study. J Clin Neurosci. 2020 Feb;72:68-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2020.01.025. Epub 2020 Jan 18. PMID: 31964560.

Lee YC, Lee R, Harman C. The incidence of new onset sacroiliac joint pain following lumbar fusion. J Spine Surg. 2019 Sep;5(3):310-314. doi: 10.21037/jss.2019.09.05. PMID: 31663041; PMCID: PMC6787362. 

Lee YC, Lee R. Minimal invasive surgical algorithm for revision lumbar spinal surgery. J Spine Surg. 2019 Dec;5(4):413-424. doi: 10.21037/jss.2019.09.08. PMID: 32042991; PMCID: PMC6989936.
Mokawem M, Katzouraki G, Harman CL, Lee R. Lumbar interbody fusion rates with 3D-printed lamellar titanium cages using a silicate-substituted calcium phosphate bone graft. J Clin Neurosci. 2019 Oct;68:134-139. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.07.011. Epub 2019 Jul 24. PMID: 31351704.

Lee R, Beder D, Street J, Boyd M, Fisher C, Dvorak M, Paquette S, Kwon B. The use of vacuum-assisted closure in spinal wound infections with or without exposed dura. Eur Spine J. 2018 Oct;27(10):2536-2542. doi: 10.1007/s00586-018-5612-2. Epub 2018 Apr 25. PMID: 29696391. 

Lee RS, Batke J, Weir L, Dea N, Fisher CG. Timing of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of metastatic spine disease: expert opinion. J Spine Surg. 2018 Jun;4(2):368-373. doi: 10.21037/jss.2018.05.05. PMID: 30069530; PMCID: PMC6046325.

Lee R, Beder D, Street J, Boyd M, Fisher C, Dvorak M, Paquette S, Kwon B. The use of vacuum-assisted closure in spinal wound infections with or without exposed dura. Eur Spine J. 2018 Oct;27(10):2536-2542. doi: 10.1007/s00586-018-5612-2. Epub 2018 Apr 25. PMID: 29696391. 

Prasad V, Mesfin A, Lee R, Reigrut J, Schmidt J. Probing and Tapping: Are We Inserting Pedicle Screws Correctly? Spine Deform. 2016 Nov;4(6):395-399. doi: 10.1016/j.jspd.2016.06.001. Epub 2016 Oct 26. PMID: 27927567.
Sedra F, Lee R, Dominguez I, Wilson L. Neurological complications using a novel retractor system for direct lateral minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Sep;31:81-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2016.02.031. Epub 2016 Jun 24. PMID: 27349467.
Mendelsohn D, Dea N, Lee R, Boyd MC. Bilateral Pedicle and Crossed Translaminar Screws in C2. Asian Spine J. 2015 Oct;9(5):783-8. doi: 10.4184/asj.2015.9.5.783. Epub 2015 Sep 22. PMID: 26435799; PMCID: PMC4591452.
Lee RS, Schmidt J: Probing, Tapping, Toggling: Are we inserting pedicle screws properly.  Spine News International. Sept 2014.
Schouten R, Keynan O, Lee RS, Street JT, Boyd MC, Paquette SJ, Kwon BK, Dvorak MF, Fisher CG. Health-related quality-of-life outcomes after thoracic (T1-T10) fractures. Spine J. 2014 Aug 1;14(8):1635-42. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.09.049. Epub 2013 Oct 25. PMID: 24373680. 
DiPaola CP, Dea N, Dvorak MF, Lee RS, Hartig D, Fisher CG. Surgeon-industry conflict of interest: survey of opinions regarding industry-sponsored educational events and surgeon teaching: clinical article. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014 Mar;20(3):313-21. doi: 10.3171/2013.11.SPINE13168. Epub 2013 Dec 20. PMID: 24359001. 
Aftab S, Chimutengwende-Gordon M, Malik A, Lee R. The use of stem cells for the treatment of spinal surgical conditions. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013 Nov;8(6):456-63. doi: 10.2174/1574888x1130800064. PMID: 24016321. 
Lee RS, Noonan VK, Batke J, Ghag A, Paquette SJ, Boyd MC, Fisher CG, Street J, Dvorak MF, Kwon BK. Feasibility of patient recruitment into clinical trials of experimental treatments for acute spinal cord injury. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Oct;19(10):1338-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.02.015. Epub 2012 Aug 24. PMID: 22921530.
Schouten R, Lee R, Boyd M, Paquette S, Dvorak M, Kwon BK, Fisher C, Street J. Intra-operative cone-beam CT (O-arm) and stereotactic navigation in acute spinal trauma surgery. J Clin Neurosci. 2012 Aug;19(8):1137-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.01.020. Epub 2012 Jun 20. PMID: 22721892.
Lee RS, Reed DW, Saifuddin A. The correlation between coronal balance and neuroaxial abnormalities detected on MRI in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Eur Spine J. 2012 Jun;21(6):1106-10. doi: 10.1007/s00586-012-2175-5. Epub 2012 Feb 4. PMID: 22310885; PMCID: PMC3366125
Lee RS, Dooley JF. Intrathoracic dislocation of the inferior pole of the scapula following thoracotomy. Acta Chir Belg. 2012 Nov-Dec;112(6):450-2. doi: 10.1080/00015458.2012.11680873. PMID: 23397830.
Vijayan S, Bartlett W, Lee R, Ostler P, Blunn GW, Cannon SR, Briggs TW. Use of irradiated autologous bone in joint sparing endoprosthetic femoral replacement tumor surgery. Indian J Orthop. 2011 Mar;45(2):161-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5413.77137. PMID: 21430872; PMCID: PMC3051124.
Dunne N, Lee RS: Mixing and Management of Acrylic Bone Cent – Orthopaedic Product News, Feb 2008: 60-62.
Lee RS, Weitzel S, Eastwood DM, Monsell F, Pringle J, Cannon SR, Briggs TW. Osteofibrous dysplasia of the tibia. Is there a need for a radical surgical approach? J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 May;88(5):658-64. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.88B5.17358. PMID: 16645116.
Lee RS, Kayser MV, Ali SY. Calcium phosphate microcrystal deposition in the human intervertebral disc. J Anat. 2006 Jan;208(1):13-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00504.x. PMID: 16420375; PMCID: PMC2100183. 
Lee RS, Langstaff RJ. Entrusting patients with their own plain radiographs increases their availability in fracture clinic. Injury. 2005 Dec;36(12):1413-5. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2005.08.009. Epub 2005 Oct 20. PMID: 16242692.
Haddo O, Higgs D, Lee RS, Pringle J, Cannon SR, Briggs TWR: Not all sacral tumours are chordomas. JBJS Sept 2004 Vol 86-B(Supp III): 256.
Lee RS, Higgs D, Haddo O, Pringle J, Briggs TW. Osteosarcoma associated with diamond-blackfan anaemia: a case of a child receiving growth hormone therapy. Sarcoma. 2004;8(1):47-9. doi: 10.1080/13577140410001679266. PMID: 18521394; PMCID: PMC2395602.  
Book Chapters

ABC of Orthopaedics and Trauma – Edited Sugand and Gupte.2018

- Chapter 12 - Spine – Syed Aftab, Robert Lee

- Chapter 14.7 – Emergency: Cauda Equina Syndrome – Syed Aftab, Robert Lee

Musculoskeletal Medicine in Primary Care: An essential guide for examination, diagnosis and management - Dr Solomon Abrahams 2014. Contributing Author – Robert Lee

Sports Injuries in Children and Adolescents – An Essential Guide for Diagnosis, Treatment and Management – Dr Solomon Abrahams 2013. Contributing Author – Robert Lee

Stanmore Guide to Trauma Management – 2014

- Cervical Spine Trauma – Nirav Patel, Robert Lee

- Thoracolumbar Trauma – Ghias Bhattee, Robert Lee

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